non-photorealistic rendering

Cupid illustration
Cupid mesh illustration
Painterly rendering
Reconstruction of deChirico's Mystery and Melancholy of a Street
Reconstruction of Giorgio de Chirico's
Mystery and Melancholy of a Street
Example-based painting
Painting style "learned" by example

Over the centuries, visual artists developed a wide variety of valuable techniques for making expressive, pleasing, and communicative imagery -- this includes ways of painting, drawing, sculpting, and so forth. However, 3D computer graphics tools are typically designed as approximations to a realistic photographic model. Our goal is to expand the range of rendering styles available to artists and designers for creating images, animations, and interactive environments; in effect, to combine the expressivity of natural media with the flexibility of computer graphics. Furthermore, digital tools can make possible animated art forms that would be impossible with traditional media.

Benefits of non-photorealistic rendering include:

Research directions

Our work includes research in the following areas:

Painterly rendering methods can process images and video to make them look hand-painted.
Multiperspective Rendering images to be rendered with non-linear perspective, freeing artists to combine images of objects with different viewpoints.
Smooth surface illustration creates pen-and-ink illustrations from 3D models.
Image analogies can automatically ``learn'' non-photorealistic rendering styles from examples.



Image Analogies
A. Hertzmann, C. Jacobs, N. Oliver, B. Curless, D. Salesin.
SIGGRAPH 2001 Conference Proceedings.

Paint by Relaxation
A. Hertzmann.
Proc. CGI 2001: Computer Graphics International.
(Also NYU CS Technical Report 2000-801)

Algorithms for Rendering in Artistic Styles
A. Hertzmann. Ph.D thesis. New York University. May, 2001.

Illustrating smooth surfaces
A. Hertzmann, D. Zorin.
SIGGRAPH 2000 Conference Proceedings. New Orleans, Louisiana. July 23-28, 2000. pp. 517-526.

Artistic Multiperspective Rendering
M. Agrawala, D. Zorin, T. Munzner.
11th Eurographics Workshop on Rendering. Brno, Czech Republic, 26-28 June 2000. pp. 125-136.

Painterly Rendering for Video and Interaction
A. Hertzmann, K. Perlin.
NPAR 2000: First International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation andRendering. Annecy, France. June 5-7, 2000. pp. 7-12.

Painterly Rendering with Curved Brush Strokes of Multiple Sizes
A. Hertzmann.
SIGGRAPH 98 Conference Proceedings. pp. 453-460. Orlando, Florida. July, 1998.